Saturday, January 07, 2006




Today i am going to introduce with my birth country Bangladesh.............

Official Name
The People's Republic Of Bangladesh

Capital
Dhaka (Area 414 sq. km. Master plan 777 sq.km.)

Currency
Currency unit is Taka. Notes are of 1,2,5,10,20,50,100 and 500 Taka. Coins are of 1,5,10,25,50 and 100 Poisha (100 Poisha = 1 Taka)

Language
Bangla is the state language. English is also widely spoken and understood. Arabic is read and spoken for religious purposes

Population
Total estimated population 130 million.

Religions
Muslim 88.3%, Hindu 10.5%, others 1.2%

Area
Total: 144,000 sq km Land: 133,910 sq km Water: 10,090 sq km

Location
Latitude from 20 degree 34' to 26 degree 38' north. Longitude from 88 degree 01' to 92 degree 41' east.

Boundary
Bounded by India from the north, east and west, Burma from the south-east and the Bay of Bengal from the south .

Climate
Tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)

Rainfall
Lowest 47" and highest 136"

National Days
National Martyrs Day ( February 21)
Independence Day ( March 26 )
Victory Day ( December 16)

Principal Rivers
Padma, Meghna, Jamuna, Brahmaputra, Madhumati, Surma and Kushiara

Principal Crops
Rice, jute, tobacco, tea, sugarcane, vegetables, potato, pulses, etc.

Fruits
Mango, banana, pineapple, jack-fruit, water-melon, green coconut, guava, lichis, etc.

Major Industries
Jute, sugar, paper, textiles, fertilizers, cigarette, cement, steel, natural gas, oil-refinery, newsprint, power generation, rayon, matches, fishing and food processing, leather, soap, carpet, timber, ship-building, telephone, etc.

Airports
Zia International Airport, Dhaka,
Chittagong International Airport,
Sylhet International Airport
and domestic airports at Jessore, Sylhet, Cox's Bazar, Rajshahi and Saidpur

Sea Ports
Chittagong
Mongla

Tourist Interests
Longest sea beach, colorful tribal life, centuries' old archeological sites, the Sundarbans (home of the Royal Bengal Tigers and spotted deer), largest tea gardens, interesting riverine life, etc.

National flag
The national flag of Bangladesh is bottle green in color and rectangular in size with the length to width ratio of 10:6. It bears a red circle on the background of green. The color in the background represents the greenery of Bangladesh while the red circle symbolizes the rising sun and the sacrifice of lives in our freedom fight. The national flag was designed by Kamrul Hasan.

Democracy
Bangladesh is a parliamentary democracy. The head of the government is Prime Minister and the head of the state is President. The current Prime Minister is Begum Khaleda Zia and President is Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed.

The National Assembly
consists of 330 members. 300 members are elected for a five-year term in single-seat constituencies and 30 women are elected by the parliamentarians. The latest elections were held in October 01 2001. Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) and four parties alliance got the landslide victory.

Dhaka is the capial and largest city of Bangladesh. Today's Dhaka has a long story of evolution. It was founded during the 10th century. It served as the Mughal capital of Bengal from 1608 to 1704.Before coming under British rule in 1765 it was a trading center for British, French, and Dutch colonialism . In 1905 it was again named the capital of Bengal, and in 1956 it became the capital of East Pakistan. During the Bangladesh war of independence in1971 the city suffered a heavy damage. In 1982 the spelling was changed from ' Dacca' to 'Dhaka'.
Dhaka is located in the geographic center of the country. It is in the great deltaic region of the Ganges and Brammaputra.

History

The people of Bangladesh discovered their identity through the Lang in 1952. The struggle to establish their identity and national spirit began soon after 1947 when they realized that under Pakistan created on the two nation theory they was little scope for the distance culture of Banglees to flourish . The refusal of the central government to grant status to Bangla language became the focal point of struggle, because language was the most important vehicle of the cultural expression of the people of this land.
The contradiction of the two Pakistans , the racial oppression and the exploitation of the West over the East was gradually unveiled. The struggle for the consciousness of identity and cultural freedom which began with the advent of the student movements of the 60's gained momentum in the mass movement of 1969. Though it brought about the fall of a mighty military ruler like Ayub Khan, the ultimate goal was not achieved. After this, came the election of 1970 with absolute victory of Sheikh Mujibur Rahaman.
In the elections of December 7, 1970 the Awami League won 160 out of 162 seats in East Pakistan, all but two, and would have had a clear majority in the new assembly had it been convened. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman became the majority party leader of the Pakistan National Assembly .
The military rules of Pakistan refused to allow the Awami League to form a government. Major General Ziaur Rahman on behalf of Mujib declared independence. A full scale movement of non-cooperation with the military government began on the 26th of March, 1971 which is celebrated as the Independence Day every year. Thus Bangladesh plunged into a civil war.
The Pakistan Army began their genocide by attacking the innocent Bangalees of Dhaka city. The dwellers of Dhaka city never confronted such intolerable days. The Pakistani army massacred 35,000 Bengali intellectuals and unleashed a brutal war against the Bangalees of East Pakistan to prevent their secession. But no one let the dream encircled flag fall down to dust .
During the nine month struggle which ensued an estimated three million Bengalis died and and ten million refuges fled into India Sheikh Mujib was imprisoned in west Pakistan. A Bangladesh Government in exile was established. The actual military campaign took place in December and lasted only ten days. The Indian Army launched a massive offensive against the Pakistani forces to support the Bangladesh movement . On December 16, 1971, the Pakistan army surrendered.

Religion

Bangladesh is one of the largest Muslim countries in the world. About 80 percent of Bangladeshis are Muslims. Most Bangladeshi Muslims are Sunnis, but there is a small Shia community. Hinduism constitutes about 12 percent of the population. Hindus in Bangladesh in the 1990s were almost evenly distributed in all regions, with concentrations in Khulna, Jessore, Dinajpur, Faridpur, and Barisal. There are significant numbers of Buddhists and Christians in Bangladesh. In the Chittagong Hills, Buddhist tribes formed the majority of the population and their religion appeared to be a mixture of tribal cults and Buddhist doctrines. According to the 1981 census, there were approximately 600,000 Buddhists in Bangladesh, representing less than 1 percent of the population. In the 1990s, Christianity had about 600,000 adherents, mainly Roman Catholic, and their numbers were growing rapidly. Bangladesh also has a very small number of tribal community that obey a different type of religious beliefs.

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